Battleship Potemkin

Battleship Potëmkin: the greatest film of all time

Considered one of the most important films in the history of silent movie, as well as possibly Eisenstein’s greatest work, BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN brought Eisenstein’s theories of cinema art to the world in a powerful showcase; his emphasis on montage, his stress of intellectual contact, and his treatment of the mass instead of the individual as the protagonist. Eisenstein used his innovative form of montage to celebrate mass action and collective heroism.

pr mic40Shot on location, entirely with nonactors, POTËMKIN was designed to look like a newsreel and function as a drama—if “drama” is the word to describe the hysteria of the  movie’s key scene, a massacre set on the steps leading down to Odessa harbor. Actually, the "Odessa steps" sequence is arguably the single most famous and widely quoted passage in the history of film.
The power and violence of editing has never been better demonstrated than by this space-pulverizing, timedistending, emotionally alarming barrage of two-second shots, half of them close-ups. Widely regarded as a masterpiece of international cinema, BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN, was named the greatest film of all time at the Brussels World's Fair in 1958.


The film structure

Potemkin belongs to the category of epic films and for the first time in cinema it represents the mass as a hero as opposed to the individual. The film is based on a real episode of the revolution which occurred in Odessa in 1905, although the Odessa steps scene was created to enhance the dramatic cli-max. The director describes the structure of the film as events divided into five acts conforming to the requirements of classical tragedy:

  • “Men and Maggots"
  • "Drama on the Deck"
  • "A Dead Man Calls for Justice"
  • "The Odessa Steps"
  • "One against all"


Plot summary

On board the battleship POTËMKIN, conditions on the ship are unbearable, which incites revolution among the sailors, most notably within the character of Vakulinchik. After the ship's doctor declares rancid meat safe to eat, there is unrest and executions are ordered. Vakulinchik then implores his shipmates to rise up against the officers of the ship. All the officers are killed and the ship is liberated.
During the uprising, Vakulinchik dies. His body his placed on the docks in the Odessa harbour as a symbol of the revolution. The citizens of Odessa rally around his body and join the Potemkin in their revolt. Cossacks then arrive and slaughter the helpless citizens on the steps leading to the harbour, effectively ending the revolt in Odessa. A fleet of battleships then comes to destroy the Potemkin but the sailors unite and allow the ship to pass unharmed.

The film and its context

Battleship Potëmkin, commissioned to mark the 20th anniversary of the failed 1905 revolution, made history—literally.


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The Soviets were inordinately fond of jubilees, so it was only fitting that for his second feature film Sergei Eisenstein would be commissioned to direct a multi-episode series marking the twentieth anniversary of the 1905 revolution in Russia. The first episode was originally intended to focus mainly on the strike that took place in St. Petersburg in October 1905, with the June 1905 mutiny aboard the battleship POTËMKIN to serve as a prologue. However, bad weather and logistical difficulties compelled Eisenstein and his crew to relocate to Odessa, and the POTËMKIN mutiny expanded into a full-fledged feature in its own right.

While Eisenstein's debut feature Strike (1924) still dazzles through its sheer stylistic daring, in THE BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN he consolidated his skills as a total filmmaker, demonstrating greater control over narrative structure and pacing.
While Eisenstein was always interested more in creating an effective and well-constructed film than in being literally faithful to the historical record, many of the key images in the script were in fact inspired by actual events associated with the Potëmkin mutiny: the sailors' refusal to eat borsch made from maggot-infested meat; the revolutionary activists Matyshenko and Vakulenchuk (spelled Vakulinchuk in the film) using that incident as a pretext to incite the other sailors to mutiny; the arrival of the battleship into the Odessa port with a red flag; the throngs of townspeople lining up to view Vakulenchuk's corpse; and the POTËMKIN being greeted by cheering sailors on another ship. There was even a massacre of civilians by police on the famed steps leading down to Odessa's port, though that was just one part of the civil strikes that occurred throughout the city and the resulting crackdown by the police and Cossacks. It should be noted that Eisenstein didn't include at least one very significant event: the massive fire that devastated the Odessa port during the strike and claimed many lives.

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In addition to its innovative and much-analyzed photography and editing, the film was noteworthy for its unusual mix of professional and non-professional actors, based on the principle of typage or casting primarily according to physical types. Eisenstein's assistant Grigori Aleksandrov played Gilyarovsky. The role of Vakulenchuk was filled by Aleksandr Antonov, a member of the Proletkult theater troupe in which Eisenstein had worked before moving into cinema. The film director Vladimir Barsky, an important figure in early Soviet cinema, played the role of Captain Golikov. Eisenstein also challenged the norms of commercial cinema by not relying on a single protagonist or romantic coupling to shape the narrative, emphasizing the notion of a "mass protagonist" instead.
THE BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN premiered at the Bolshoi Theater in December 1925 and was released in Moscow in January 1926. Barely completed in time for the premiere, it was initially more of a rough cut, as Richard Taylor has pointed out. The orchestral accompaniment, as was common practice at the time, was culled from pre-existing works in the classical repertoire. At its two main Moscow engagements, the theater exteriors were decorated to resemble battleships, and the staff were dressed in sailors' outfits. Posters touted it as "the pride of Soviet cinema," boasting of 300,000 admissions in the first three weeks alone.

Potëmkin in Berlin

pr mic43What really sealed the film's success, however, was the sensational reception at its April 1926 Berlin premiere. The Soviet authorities actually sold the original negative to the Germans--a move that seems inconceivable today--but they retained the right to request new prints from it. Fearing a threat to "the public order," the German censors initially banned the film outright but later demanded a number of cuts, mainly due to violent imagery. These included some of the shots depicting the body of young boy trampled on the Odessa steps. The film director Piel Jutzi was brought in to adapt the film for German audiences; among other things, he divided it into six parts instead of five.

Naum Kleiman, the foremost Eisenstein scholar, has speculated that Eisenstein's trip to Germany before the premiere was in fact to oversee the film's reediting, so he may well have had some input into the German distribution version. The director also guided Edmund Meisel's work on the music score, encouraging him to emphasize rhythm over melody. For instance, the music accompanying the battleship's climactic meeting with the squadron has a mechanical quality that underscores the film's ties with the Soviet artistic movement known as Constructivism.

Ultimately, cultural impact of THE BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN in Germany cannot be overstated. Besides becoming a great popular success, it influenced artistic figures as ranging from Fritz Lang to Bertolt Brecht and the theater directors Erwin Piscator and Max Reinhardt. Not only did the film's reputation in Germany help raise awareness of it in countries such as England and the United States, it even resulted in a second release of the film in the Soviet Union during the
summer of 1926. However, the Soviet authorities' decision to sell the negative to the Germans meant it would not survive in its original version.

Political implications

The film's potential to influence political thought through emotional response was noted by Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, who called POTËMKIN "a marvelous film without equal in the cinema ... anyone who had no firm political conviction could become a Bolshevik after seeing the film". The film was not banned in Nazi Germany, although Himmler issued a directive prohibiting SS members from attending screenings, as he deemed the movie inappropriate for the troops.

The film was eventually banned in some countries, including being banned at various times in both the United States and France, as well as in its native Soviet Union. The film was banned in the United Kingdom longer than any other film in British history.


pr mic44The pressures of censorship and the vagaries of distribution over the years have resulted in the situation that THE BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN survives in several different versions, each with their own set of limitations. For many years the Museum of Modern Art circulated an English language version based on an authoritative print donated by the Eisenstein scholar Jay Leyda and supposedly provided by Eisenstein himself, but they altered the original intertitles, among other things making them longer and thus
slowing the pace of the film. Another version with English titles was prepared by the British leftist filmmaker Ivor Montagu. In 1950, the film was reissued in the Soviet Union in a version supervised by Grigori Aleksandrov and accompanied by a serviceable, if pedestrian, score by Nikolai Kryukov. According to Enno Patalas, this version was missing some seventy shots, suffered from substantially reworked intertitles, and even reordered some of the footage following earlier, similarly corrupted versions.
For example, the visceral impact of the opening of the Odessa steps massacre--in which the title "And suddenly..." is followed by a series of jump cuts of a woman's head jerking back--was blunted by preceding it with shots of the soldiers' boots and rifles to provide more of a conventional causeand-effect structure. This version also used step-printing (the repetition of individual frames) to slow the movement down for projection at sound speed. In 1976, the Soviet filmmaker Sergei Yutkevitch, in collaboration with Naum Kleiman, created a new version that was the most complete and authentic to date, but its pacing was again compromised by the use of stretch printing, and it was still missing fifteen shots compared to the current reconstruction. Thus, while it contained fewer shots, at 74 minutes it still ran significantly longer than the 2005 reconstruction. Also, one could argue that the excerpts from the Shostakovich symphonies chosen to accompany the print added to its lugubrious atmosphere.

New 2005 reconstruction

The 2005 reconstruction relies heavily on the Jay Leyda print and written recollections for its shot list, but whenever possible uses early generation prints held at the British Film Institute because of their superior photographic quality. (The original negative still exists at Gosfilmofond of Russia, though it bears the traces of German censorship and according to the archive is too fragile to use for printing, as Patalas related in a 2005 article in the Journal of Film Preservation.) The intertitles
recreate the original text as closely as possible, including the restoration of a Trotsky quotation as the epigraph; predictably, it had been replaced by a Lenin quote when Trotsky fell out of favor. The length of the individual title cards is also now more in keeping with the film's rhythm as a whole, which is no small point since Eisenstein viewed them as a crucial component of his montage aesthetic. Lastly, as Eisenstein intended from the start, this version uses hand-coloring to tint the Potemkin's flag red during certain sequences.

pr mic45Naum Kleiman, one of the collaborators to the project, sums up the difficult choices faced in reconstructing the film: "There being no absolutely exact film record from 1926, we cannot claim to have all the scenes in their full length. Often, what Patalas did was an extension of an already existing version, that is, of the censored version. Due to the disintegration of the film, or splices that have come apart, some parts had to be spliced together again. Some frames were lost in the process. Today it's difficult to assess whether all that was added to the very last version changed the meaning of the film, or its rhythm, or whether it reinforced its visual quality. At any rate, we felt that we managed to approximate the original up to 99%, or even 99.5%."

Viewers already familiar with THE BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN are likely to be struck with how much better the reconstruction flows as a film compared to previous versions. Combined with the superior detail and contrast of the new video transfer and the excitement of Meisel's orchestral score, the reconstruction enables us to appreciate one of cinema's greatest masterpieces in a fresh light.



To retain its relevance as a propaganda film for each new generation, Eisenstein thought that the score should have been rewritten every 20 years. The original score was  composed by Edmund Meisel. A salon orchestra performed the Berlin premiere in 1926. The instruments were flute/piccolo, trumpet, trombone, harmonium, percussion and strings without viola. Meisel wrote the score in twelve days because of the late approval of film censors.
Nikolai Kryukov composed a new score in 1950 for the 25th anniversary. In 1985, Chris Jarrett composed a solo piano accompaniment for the movie. In 1986 Eric Allaman wrote an electronic score for a showing that took place at the 1986 Berlin International Film Festival. The music was commissioned by the organizers, who wanted to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the film's German premiere. The score was played only at this premiere and has not been released on CD or DVD. Contemporary reviews were largely positive apart from negative comment because the music was electronic. Allaman also wrote an opera about Battleship Potëmkin, which is musically separate from the film score.
In its commercial format, on DVD for example, the film is usually accompanied by classical music added for the 50th anniversary edition re-released in 1975. Three symphonies from Dmitri Shostakovich have been used, with No. 5 beginning and ending the film, being the most prominent. In 2007, Del Rey & The Sun Kings also recorded this soundtrack. In an attempt to make the film relevant to the 21st century, Neil Tennant and Chris Lowe (of the Pet Shop Boys) composed a soundtrack in 2004 with the Dresden Symphonic Orchestra. Their soundtrack, released in 2005 as Battleship Potëmkin, premiered in September 2004 at an open-air concert in Trafalgar Square, London. The avant-garde jazz ensemble Club Foot Orchestra has also re-scored the film, and performed live accompanying the film.

For the 2005 restoration of the film, the Deutsche Kinemathek - Museum fur Film und Fernsehen, commissioned a re-recording of the 1926 Edmund Meisel’s original soundtrack. Meisel’s orchestral score was lost for many years, so it was finally  reconstructed. Helmut Imig was given the task of making a new adaptation and instrumentation using other source materials, including the official piano reduction of the music.


The original soundtrack by Edmund Meisel

pr mic46Edmund Meisel (1894 -1930) is almost unknown and neglected composer. His relationship with Eisenstein goes beyond the pure artistic collaboration to a shared political ideology. He started his career as a composer collaborating in po-litical theatre. He engaged contacts with the Communist International of help to the worker.

He was a sort of shooting star not only because of his premature death but also because of his tempestuos musical con-tribution to the Theatre and Films. He could be related to the Italian Futurism movement; he invented a noise machine, a sort of keyboard that reproduced all sort of sounds, the Geräuschmaschine, and gave concerts playing it in orchestras. Later on the used it in films like Potemkin to create wind and ship engines noise. The ‘noise-music’ is decisive to understand his music conception in POTËMKIN. The reason is that he was trying to reach musical drama by looking for the rhythm and sound of nature. The most important step in his career was Potëmkin and his contact with Eisenstein. Their relationship was very short but it was a fruitful mutual exchange. As Ian Christie wrote: “Meisel broke decisively the pot-pourri tradition of film music and launched boldly into a musical architecture that responded to the challenge of Eisenstein’s non-narrative mon-tage construction”.

He wrote both scores for POTËMKIN in a very short time. He had only 12 days and nights to compose the whole score for Potemkin including rehearsals for the POTËMKIN’s Berlin performance. Ernest Boreman wrote in 1934 an article in Sight and Sound about Meisel’s method of composing. “Meisel analyzed the montage of some famous silent films in regard to rhythm, emphasis, emotional climax and mood. To reach separate shot he assigned a certain musical theme. Then he directly combined the separate themes using the rhythm, emphasis and climaxes of the visual montage for the organization of his music. He wished to prove theexperiments that the montage of a good film is based on the same rules and develops in the same way as mu- sic. The result of this experiment was the some so-called ‘good’ films did not in any way produced music but merely a chaos of various themes unordered and unorganized. other of the films he chose, however, resulted in a kind of strange rhapsody unaccustomed and extraordinary to the ear but nevertheless not without a certain musical continuity. By far the best result was Potemkin”.

The New York Herald Tribune proclaimed Meisel’s music to be as "powerful, as vital, as galvanic, and electrifying as the film.”


In conclusion, on the rousing score by Meisel we can say that:

  • there is a perfect symbiosis of visual and musical images closer to the model of sound film rather than music used as simple illustration;
  • it is sensitive to the internal dramatic structure of the film and in particular to the rhythmic montage;
  • well balance mixture of tonal and modernist musical language corresponding to different moods;
  • the noise is part of the music and incorporated into the score as an expressive device. Consequently,there is a marked presence of percussion instruments from the gong to the timpani, sometimes trying toreplace non existing diegetic sound;
  • flexibility in the rhythmic pulse, form continuity (ostinato with martial connotations) to discontinuity (longnotes with spare silences). Overall rhythmic power;
  • a thematic unity without long developments; instead we find short themes in closed intervalic relationship,giving a sense of continuity. Special attention to the tritone and chromatism;
  • spare music acts as an external commentator to certain characters and their implications, with a specialsense of humour and irony with influences of popular music, jazz, cabaret and music hall. Political (the captain) who represents the oppressive power. Religious (the priest) as the composer expresses by acomic tune, his marxists ideology, and finally Institutional (the doctor) who represents doctrinal dictator-ship.


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The Odessa Steps sequence

pr mic48One of the most celebrated scenes in the film is the massacre of civilians on the Odessa Steps (also known as the Primorsky or POTËMKIN Stairs). This scene has been described as one of the most influential in the history of cinema, because it introduced concepts of film editing and montage to cinema. In this scene, the Tsar's soldiers in their white summer tunics march down a seemingly endless flight of steps in a rhythmic, machine-like fashion, firing volleys into a crowd.

A separate detachment of mounted Cossacks charges the crowd at the bottom of the stairs. The victims include an older woman wearing pince-nez, a young boy with his mother, a student in uniform and a teenage schoolgirl. A mother pushing an infant in a baby carriage falls to the ground dying and the carriage rolls down the steps amidst the fleeing crowd.

pr mic49The massacre on the steps, which never took place, was presumably inserted by Eisenstein for dramatic effect and to demonise the Imperial government. It is, however, based on the fact that there were widespread demonstrations in the area, sparked off by the arrival of the POTËMKIN in Odessa Harbour, and both The Times and the resident British Consul reported that troops fired on the crowds; deaths were allegedly in the hundreds.



“When ruthless White Russian cavalry arrives to crush the rebellion on the sandstone Odessa Steps, the most famous and most quoted film sequence in cinema history is born.”
– Promotional synopsis, Kino International


pr mic50Orlando Figes writes: “[Eisenstein] also used montage to extend time and increase the tension – as in THE BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN, in the famous massacre scene on the steps of Odessa in which the action is slowed down by the intercutting of close-ups of faces in the crowd with repeated images of the soldiers’ descent down the stairs. The scene, by the way, was entirely fictional: there was no massacre on the Odessa steps in 1905 – although it often appears in the history books.”
– Orlando Figes, Natasha’s Dance: A Cultural History of Russia (Metropolitan Books, 2002)

Eisenstein, father of montage

According to Columbia Electronic Encyklopedia: Montage (montäzh', Fr. môNtäzh'), the art and technique of motion-picture editing in which contrasting shots or sequences are used to effect emotional or intellectual responses. It was developed creatively after 1925 by the Russian Sergei Eisenstein; since that time montage has become an increasingly complex and inventive way of extending the imaginative possibilities of film art. In still photography a composite picture, made by combining several prints, or parts of prints, and then rephotographing them as a whole, is often called a montage or a photomontage.

“Eisenstein saw film editing, or montage, as a process which operated according to the Marxist dialectic. This dialectic is a way of looking at human history and experience as a perpetual conflict in which a force (thesis) collides with a counterforce (antithesis) to produce from their collision a wholly new phenomenon (synthesis), which is not the sum of the two forces but something greater than and different from them both…Eisenstein defined montage as a series of ideas or impressions which arise from “the collision of independent shots”…Just as the individual words in a sentence
depend for their meaning upon the words which surround them, so the individual shots in a montage sequence acquire meaning from their interaction with the other shots in the sequence.”
ꟷ David Cook, A History of Narrative Film, W.W. Norton & Co., 1996

"Montage, has been established by Soviet film as the nerve of cinema. To determine the nature of montage is to solve the specific problem of cinema."
ꟷ Sergei Eisenstein, "A Dialectic Approach”

“Eisenstein has become a myth. He has been acclaimed as a genius, as the greatest film-maker of all times, as the maker of the greatest film of all time, and as one of the great philosophers of art of our century. More has been written about him than about any other film director and he himself wrote more than any other film director both about his own work and about cinema as a medium and as an art form.”
ꟷ Richard Taylor, The Eisenstein Reader, 2009

Today contemporary directors are still using his methods of montage. Brian de Palma used the motive of rolling down pram in the train station sequence in his movie The  Untouchables (1987). Oliver Stone used Eisenstein's concepts of visual conflict in the sequence of night attack in Platoon (1986). Majority of music video clips are using Eisenstein's montage of attraction. TV commercials are based on intellectual montage, or like Nike and Adidas advertisement are using overtonal montage.

Critical reaction

BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN has received universal acclaim from critics. On review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an overall 100% "Certified Fresh" approval rating based on 44 reviews, with a rating average of 9.1 out of 10. The site's consensus reads, "A technical masterpiece, Battleship Potëmkin is Soviet cinema at its finest, and its montage editing techniques remain influential to this day." Since its release, Battleship Potëmkin has often been cited as one of the finest propaganda films ever made and considered amongst the greatest films of all time.

Voted the greatest film of all time by an international panel of critics in Brussels in 1958, as it had been in 1950, POTËMKIN has achieved such an unholy eminence that few people any longer dispute its merits. Great as it undoubtedly is, it’s not really a likable film; it’s amazing, though – it keeps its freshness and its excitement, even if you resist its cartoon message. Perhaps no other movie has ever had such graphic strength in its images, and the young director Sergei Eisenstein opened up a new technique of psychological stimulation by means of rhythmic editing - “montage.”‘ – Pauline Kael, 5001 Nights at the Movies (Holt Paperback, 1991)

Similarly, in 1952, Sight & Sound magazine cited The Battleship Potëmkin as the fourth greatest film of all time and has been voted within the top ten in the magazine's five subsequent decennial polls, dropping to number 11 in the 2012 poll.
In 2007, a two-disc, restored version of the film was released on DVD. Time magazine's Richard Corliss named it one of the Top 10 DVDs of the year, ranking it at #5. It ranked #3 in Empire's "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010. In April 2011, BATTLESHIP POTËMKIN was re-released in UK cinemas, distributed by the British Film Institute. On its re-release, Total Film magazine gave the film a five-star review, stating: "...nearly 90 years on, Eisenstein’s masterpiece is still guaranteed to get the pulse racing."

Directors Orson Welles, Michael Mann and Paul Greengrass placed Battleship Potëmkin on their
list of favorite films.

Director Billy Wilder has named Battleship Potëmkin as his favourite film of all time.


Treatment in other works of art

pr mic51The scene is perhaps the best example of Eisenstein's theory on montage, and many films pay homage to the scene, including Terry Gilliam's Brazil, Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather, Brian De Palma's The Untouchables, George Lucas' Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, Tibor Takacs' Deathline, Laurel and Hardy's The Music Box, Chandrashekhar Narvekar's Hindi film Tezaab, Shukō Murase's anime Ergo Proxy, and The Magic Christian. Several films spoof it, including Woody Allen's Bananas and Love and Death, Zucker, Abrahams, and Zucker's Naked Gun 33⅓.The Final Insult (though actually a parody of The Untouchables), and the Soviet-Polish comedy Deja Vu, Jacob Tierney's The Trotsky. The 2011 November 7 Parade in Moscow also features a homage to the film.

The painter Francis Bacon called this
The Battleship Potëmkin image a catalyst for his work.


The painter Francis Bacon (1909–1992) was profoundly influenced by Eisenstein's images, particularly the Odessa Steps shot of the nurse's broken glasses and open mouthed  scream. The open mouth image appeared first in his Abstraction from the Human Form, in Fragment of a Crucifixion, and other works including his famous Head series.

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The Russian-born photographer and artist Alexey Titarenko paid tribute to the Odessa Steps shot in his series "City Of Shadows" (1991–1993) by using a crowd of desperate people on the stairs near the subway station in Saint Petersburg to demonize the Soviet government and as a symbol of human tragedy.


Alexey Titarenko paid tribute to the Odessa Steps shot in his series "City Of Shadows". Saint Petersburg, 1991.


“The film once had such power that it was banned in many nations, including its native Soviet Union. Governments actually believed it could incite audiences to action. If today it seems more like a technically brilliant but simplistic “cartoon” (Pauline Kael’s description in a favorable review), that may be because it has worn out its element of surprise – that, like the 23rd Psalm or Beethoven’s Fifth, it has become so familiar we cannot perceive it for what it is. Having said that, let me say that “Potemkin,” which I have seen many times and taught using a shot-by-shot approach, did come alive for me the other night, in an unexpected time and place […] Under the stars on a balmy summer night, far from film festivals and cinematheques, Sergei Eisenstein’s 1925 revolutionary call generated some of its legendary rabble-rousing power.”
– Roger Ebert, ‘Great Movies’ review

“[…] the dynamic of Sergei Eisenstein’s cinema – of drastic composition and editing fusion – had been displaced (thanks to Murnau, Renoir, Welles, Mizoguchi, Ophuls, and so many others) by fluidity, movement, and duration […] But Eisenstein and his colleagues were working in Russia in 1925, with the horror of tsarism recent enough to demand remedy. And Eisenstein was an illustrator of astonishing power. Moreover, in seeing cinema as a matter of so many angled compositions or “shock shots,” he was locking himself into an editing style that was always cutting away and would never appreciate real time or space”
– David Thomson, ‘Have You Seen…?’: A Personal Introduction to 1,000 Films (Penguin, 2010)


Recap Info

Director: Sergei Eisenstein
Written by: Nikolai Aseyev, Sergei Tretyakov, Sergei Eisenstein on an idea by Nina Agadzhanova-Shutko
Music: Edmund Meisel (original reorchestrated soundtrack)
Starring: Aleksandr Antonov, Vladimir Barksy, Grigori Aleksandrov, Vladimir Heifetz
Country: Soviet Union
Year: 1925
Genre: Epic
Running time: 70’
Symphonic orchestra: 51/61 musicians




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